Principle 1: Overall growth is not nearly as important as growth per shareToo often, you'll hear leading financial publications and broadcast talking about the overall growth rate of a company. While this number is very important in the long run, it is not the all-important factor in deciding how fast your equity in the company will grow. Growth per share is.
An over-simplified example may help. Let's look at a fictional company:
Eggshell Candies, Inc.
$50 per share
100,000 shares outstanding
Market Capitalization: $5,000,000
This year, the company made a profit of $1 million dollars.
In this example, each share equals .001% of ownership in the company. (100% divided by 100,000 shares.)
Management is upset by the company's performance because it sold the exact same amount of candy this year as it did last year. That means the growth rate is 0%! The executives want to do something to make the shareholders money because of the disappointing performance this year, so one of them suggests a stock buyback program. The others immediately agree; the company will use the $1 million profit it made this year to buy stock in itself.
So the very next day, the CEO goes and takes the $1 million dollars out of the bank and buys 20,000 shares of stock in his company. (Remember it is trading at $50 a share according to the information above.) Immediately, he takes the shares to the Board of Directors, and they vote to destroy them so that they no longer exist. This means that now there are only 80,000 shares of Eggshell Candies in existence instead of the original 100,000.
What does that mean to you? Each share you own no longer represents .001% of the company. Instead, it represents .00125%; that's a 25% increase in value per share! The next day you wake up and find out that your stock in Eggshell is now worth $62.50 per share instead of $50. Even though the company didn't grow this year, you still made a twenty five percent increase on your investment! This leads to the second principle.